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Forging

Castings vs Forging Comparison Chart

castings vs forging comparison chart

Forging is the manufacturing process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings. The process is normally performed hot by preheating the metal to a desired temperature before it is worked.

Forging – metal shaping by plastic deformation – spans a multitude of equipment and techniques. Knowing the various forging operations and the characteristic metal flow each produces is key to understanding forging design.

Cold Forging – This type involves either impression die or true closed die forging with lubricant and circular dies at or near room temperature. Carbon and standard alloy steels are most commonly cold-forged. Parts are generally symmetrical and rarely exceed 25 pounds. The primary advantage is the material savings through precision shapes that require little finishing. Production rates are very high with exceptional die life. While cold forging usually improves mechanical properties, the improvement is not useful in many common applications and economic advantages are the main reason for utilizing this process. Tool design and manufacturing process are critical.

Warm Forging – This process has a number of cost-saving advantages which underscores its increasing use as a manufacturing method. The temperature range for the warm forging of steel runs from above room temperature to between 800-1800 F. This process has the potential advantage of reduced tooling loads, reduced press loads, increased steel ductility, elimination of requirement to anneal prior to forging, and favorable as-forged properties that can eliminate heat treatment.

Hot Forging – Hot forging is the plastic deformation of metal at a temperature and strain rate such that recrystallization occurs simultaneously with deformation, thus avoiding strain hardening. For this to occur, high work piece temperature must be attained throughout the process.

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